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The Thirteenth Tribe / The Khazar Empire and its Heritage

 

Jeśli to prawda, to wiem dlaczego "antysemityzm wyssałem z mlekiem matki" / Prawdopodobnym jest, że matka odziedziczyła go w genach po "Janie III Sobieskim". - Ale to wcale nie znaczy, że jestem hitlerowcem, nie jestem. - "Moja antysemicka etykieta" jest raczej "antysemityzmem poznawczym" , niż "kwiożerczym". Poza tym, każdy ma prawo wiedzieć, z kim ma do czynienia.

 

Izraelscy syjoniści zamordowali własnego premiera:  4 listopada 1995 r., Żyd nazwiskiem Jigal Amir, na placu Królów Izraela przestrzelił Rabinowi płuco. Premier Izraela zmarł 40 minut później. Amirowi w końcu się udało: to nie była jego pierwsza próba. Podczas procesu Amir bronił się powołując wyłącznie na religijne zasady, które – według niego samego – dawały mu prawo do zamordowania „zdrajcy”. Dostał dożywocie.

A Likud, który brał udział w histerycznej nagonce na Rabina, tworzy obecnie rząd wraz z inną nacjonalistyczną partią, Naszym Domem Izrael Awigdora Liebermana. Plac Królów Izraela nazywa się obecnie placem Ichaka Rabina. Jak i wiele innych placów, ulic i instytucji publicznych w Izraelu. 

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The Thirteenth Tribe

 

The Thirteenth Tribe (1976) is a book by Arthur Koestler, which advances the thesis that Ashkenazi Jews are not descended from the historicalIsraelites of antiquity, but from Khazars, a Turkic people. Koestler's hypothesis is that the Khazars (who converted to Judaism in the 8th century) migrated westwards into Eastern Europe in the 12th and 13th centuries when the Khazar Empire was collapsing.

Koestler used previous works by Abraham Poliak, Raphael Patai and Douglas Morton Dunlop as sources. His stated intent was to make antisemitismdisappear by disproving its racial basis.

Popular reviews of the book were mixed, academic critiques of its research were generally negative, and Koestler biographers David Cesarani andMichael Scammell panned it.

 

 

The book

 

Contents[edit]

In the book, Koestler advances the thesis that Ashkenazi Jews are not descended from the historical Israelites of antiquity, but from Khazars, a Turkic people originating in and populating an empire north of and between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea. Koestler's hypothesis is that the Khazars – who converted to Judaism in the 8th century – migrated westwards into current Eastern Europe (primarily Ukraine, Poland, Belarus, Lithuania, Hungary and Germany) in the 12th and 13th centuries when the Khazar Empire was collapsing. At the end of the book's last chapter, Koestler summarises its content and his intentions as follows: "In Part One of this book I have attempted to trace the history of the Khazar Empire based on the scant existing sources. In Part Two, Chapters V-VII, I have compiled the historical evidence which indicates that the bulk of Eastern Jewry — and hence of world Jewry — is of Khazar-Turkish, rather than Semitic, origin. In the last chapter I have tried to show that the evidence from anthropology concurs with history in refuting the popular belief in a Jewish race descended from the biblical tribe."

Sources[edit]

Mattias Gardell writes that Koestler's thesis is "partly based on amateur anthropology",[1] and its scientific arguments come from The Myth of a Jewish Race (1975) by Raphael Patai and his daughter Jennifer.[2] It also relies on the work of earlier historians, particularly Russian-Israeli historian Abraham Poliak's Hebrew book Khazaria: Toledot mamlakhah yehudit (1951),[3][4] and theHistory of the Jewish Khazars (1954) by Douglas Morton Dunlop, the author whom Koestler himself describes as a main source.[5] Neil McInnes writes that Dunlop was, however, "much more tentative" in his conclusions, as were other historians of Khazars, including Peter Golden and Moses Shulvass.[5] Golden himself described the book as "controversial", stating it contained "sweeping claims of Khazar legacy and influence".[6]

Koestler's reason for writing it[edit]

Koestler biographer Michael Scammell writes that Koestler told French biologist Pierre Debray-Ritzen he "was convinced that if he could prove that the bulk of Eastern European Jews (the ancestors of today's Ashkenazim) were descended from the Khazars, the racial basis for anti-Semitism would be removed and anti-Semitism itself could disappear".[3] According to George Urban, Koestler's desire to connect Ashkenazi Jews with Khazars was "based on a tacit belief that the intellectual brilliance of and international influence of Hungarians and Jews, especially Hungarian Jews or Jewish-Hungarians, was due to some unexplained but clearly ancient affinity between the two peoples".[7]

Reception[edit]

In The Invention of the Jewish People, Shlomo Sand, historian of cinema, French intellectual history, and nationalism at Tel Aviv University, writes "while the Khazars scared off the Israeli historians, not one of whom has published a single paper on the subject, Koestler's Thirteenth Tribe annoyed and provoked angry responses. Hebrew readers had no access to the book itself for many years, learning about it only through the venomous denunciations".[8] Writing in The Wall Street Journal, Chronicle of Higher Education editor Evan Goldstein states "Sand suggests that those who attacked Koestler's book did so not because it lacked merit, but because the critics were cowards and ideologues. 'No one wants to go looking under stones when venomous scorpions might be lurking beneath them, waiting to attack the self-image of the existing ethnos and its territorial ambitions.'"[9]

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